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Introduction
Gallbladder is the pear-shaped sac present below the liver. It stores the bile produced by the liver that is then used for digestion. Most of the gallbladder diseases are caused due to its inflammation.

gallbladder disorders and gallstone pancreatitis

Types of gallbladder disorders

  • Gallstones, also called bile duct stones, are hard, pebble-like deposits formed in the gallbladder that may block the bile duct. This is the most common type of gallbladder disorder. Gallstones are formed due to various reasons such as high content of cholesterol in bile, bilirubin in blood, diet, and lifestyle, gallbladder movement, body weight, birth control pills, prolonged fasting, increased level of estrogen, hormone therapy and certain diseases such as Crohn’s disease and cirrhosis.
  • Gallstone Pancreatitis: is a medical condition where the gallstones block the bile ducts preventing the pancreatic enzymes to flow into the small intestine.
  • Cholecystitis: is the inflammation of the gall bladder, which can be acute or chronic. Acute cholecystitis may also be caused by tumors or other diseases. Chronic cholecystitis causes the gallbladder to shrink and lose its ability to store bile making surgery the required treatment method for this condition.
  • Choledocholithiasis: is a medical condition where the gallstones may block the neck of the gallbladder or bile ducts preventing the bile from exiting to the small intestine. This causes the inflammation of the gallbladder.
  • Biliary Dyskinesia is a condition that occurs with the inflammation of the gallbladder causing it to function abnormally. Eating a high fat meal may trigger symptoms.
  • Sclerosing Cholangitis: is the scarring of the gallbladder due to inflammation or damage to the bile ducts. This disorder increases the risk of liver cancer. Medications to suppress the immune system and break down bile might help manage the symptoms. Liver transplant is the only known cure for this condition.
  • Gallbladder Polyps: are growths developing in the gallbladder. If the size of the polyps are bigger than 1 cm then it is recommended to remove it surgically
  • Gangrene of the gallbladder is a serious condition occurring when there is insufficient blood flow.
  • Abscess of the gallbladder is the accumulation of pus, which is white blood cells, dead tissue and bacteria formed due to the blockage of the gallbladder.


Symptoms
Common symptoms for gallbladder disorders include,

  • Fever
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Pain in the upper abdomen
  • Chills
  • Jaundice

Diagnosis
Here are some diagnostic methods used to test for gallbladder disorders

  • Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP): is a GI procedure where the patient is sedated and an endoscope is passed down the digestive tract. A catheter is inserted into the bile duct and contrast dye in injected to clearly view the contents of the digestive tract on an X-ray image. If gallstones or blockage are found, it can be extracted using this procedure.
  • HIDA scan is a procedure where radioactive material is injected to measure the function of contents removed by the gallbladder.
  • Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) uses MRI to produce detailed images.
  • Liver tests, CT scan, and ultrasound are also used to diagnose gallbladder disorders.

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